2.3.4 Installation of a CO2 heat pump

2.3.4 Installation of a CO2 heat pump


The CO2 heat pump is a recently developed and more efficient alternative than traditional systems to produce DHW. The CO2 heat pump technology is capable of producing up to 4 kW of thermal energy from 1kW of power supply (from electricity), while a conventional gas or oil boiler can only produce less than 1 kW of thermal energy from 1kW of power supply (from fuel).


  • Energy savings can reach up to a 78% compared to a standard gas boiler (90% efficiency)

  • Non-contaminant and high GWP refrigerant gas is used


  • High working pressures

  • Limited flexibility

  • Minimum evaporation temperature: – 56°C

  • Condensation temperature maximum: 31°C

  • More expensive facilities operating with conventional refrigerants

  • Heavier than air. In case of escape, the CO2 is coupled to ground level and displaces air

  • In case of leaks, there is no warning based on smell (odourless)

Economic assessment

Lower life cycle maintenance/repair costs.

Payback estimated: 3-7 years, depending on the system configuration and other issues.

References and best practices

Image gallery


Environment or playable world:

  • Residential

  • Academic

  • Offices

  • All

Carried out by:

  • Public building users

  • Owners

  • Operators

  • All

Reduce consumption of:

  • Heating

  • Cooling

  • DHW

  • Lighting

  • Electric devices

Type of driver:

  • Physical environmental

  • Contextual

  • Psychological

  • Physiological

  • Social

Time framework:

  • Short term
  • Long term

Type of measure:

  • Envelope
  • HVAC
  • DHW
  • Lighting
  • Electrical devices
  • Other
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